It has retained closer political and economic ties to Russia than have any of the other former Soviet republics. Belarus and Russia signed a treaty on a two-state union on 8 December 1999 envisioning greater political and economic integration. Although Belarus agreed to a framework to carry out the accord, serious implementation has yet to take place and current negotiations on further integration have been contentious. Since his election in July 1994 as the country’s first and only directly elected president, Alyaksandr LUKASHENKA has steadily consolidated his power through authoritarian means and a centralized economic system. Government restrictions on political and civil freedoms, freedom of speech and the press, peaceful assembly, and religion have remained in place. Restrictions on political freedoms have grown increasingly strained following the disputed presidential election in August 2020.
Internet disruptions were registered during protest rallies throughout 2020. Women formally enjoy equal political rights and make up 40 percent of the legislators elected in November 2019. Women’s advocacy groups have diverging positions on promoting the political rights of women, with some such groups taking the position that there is no need for gender equality initiatives in Belarus.
- The first appearance of feminist initiatives came in 1991, when the Belarusian Committee of Soviet Women was transformed into the Union of Women in Belarus.
- After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the list of women-banned professions came to the Belarusian reality in 2000, when the Council of Ministers approved a decree according to which 252 professions became unavailable to women.
- Local authorities routinely surveil and monitor individuals who display publicly or privately any symbols of the opposition, including coded phrases or colors.
- Prior to the partition of the Commonwealth by the end of the eighteenth century, all land belonged to the local gentry and petty noblemen .
- Women have created solidarity groups and a huge resistance movement against war.
The government arrested two major candidates, Siarhei Tsikhanouski and Viktar Babaryka, and forced another candidate, Valery Tsepkalo, to flee the country before voting day. Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya and Veronika Tsepkalo, who led the largest opposition rallies in the country since the fall of the Soviet Union, both became popular candidates after their husbands were arrested and forced to flee. They experienced severe pressure from authorities and eventually went into exile after the August election. Authorities failed to send an invitation to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe on time, and the elections took place without an independent monitoring mission. Belarus is an authoritarian state in which elections are openly rigged and civil liberties are severely restricted.
With the incorporation of the Belarusian territories into the Great Lithuanian Duchy and later into the Polish-dominated Commonwealth, Roman Catholicism and Protestantism flourished in Belarus. At the end of the sixteenth century, the struggle between the Russian Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches produced the Orthodox Uniate Church, governed by the Vatican. The Orthodox Church dominated following the Russian defeat of uprisings in 1863 and 1864. Commuters climb on and off a city bus in Minsk, the largest city, with a population of almost two million. Among the primary products traded are buckwheat, chalk, chloride, clay, limestone, peat, potassium, quartz sand, rye, sodium chloride, sugar beets, timber, tobacco, wheat, farm machinery, fertilizers, glass, machine tools, synthetic fibers, and textiles. Among the most significant export partners are Russia , Ukraine, Poland, Germany, and Lithuania. Belarusian eating habits are not very different from those of people in other Eastern European cultures.
Functioning of Government
The Belarusian language belongs to the family of Slavic languages and is very close to Russian and Ukrainian. All the three languages use the Cyrillic alphabet, with minor modifications in Ukrainian and Belarusian. Until the early twentieth century, the Belarusian language stood out as a symbol of ethnic distinction. Since the fall of the Soviet Union, however, Belarusian is again being spoken and taught in schools as the national language. The major ethnic groups in 2000 were Belarusians (77.9 percent), Russians (13.2 percent), Poles (4.16 percent), Ukrainians (2.9 percent), Jews (1.1 percent), Tartars, and Lithuanians . The demographic distribution remained consistent for centuries, but changed profoundly during the course of the twentieth century, especially due to the murder of Jews and Poles during the Holocaust and the influx of ethnic Russians. 6.1.1 Proportion of population using safely managed drinking water services, by urban/rural.
Gross reproduction rate
Now, there is a plenty of secondary regulations that are out of the Labor Code and govern precisely this contract system. Because the article 17 of the new version of the Labor Code stipulates that conclusion of fixed-term contracts is prohibited in cases of permanent types of work.
Women cannot be employed to work with vibro- and pneumatic tools, they are prohibited from working in closed containers and sewage wells. In addition, women cannot produce paint and insulating work in tight compartments and work towards the production of technical products at the meat products production. Women may also not charge and repair acid and alkaline batteries, be a diver, a coppersmith, a bricklayer. However, this diagram illustrates that in the first half of 2017, “female” professions are predominant in terms of the number of laid-off workers, while “male” occupations are higher in terms of the number of recruited employees. Net recruitment and dismissal (-) by type of economic activity in April 2017, persons. As reported by the National Statistical Committee of the Republic of Belarus, only 12.4% of citizens have a monthly income of 600 rubles ($ 310) for the first quarter of this year.
Domestic violence is a pervasive problem in Belarus, and police register about 150,000 incidents per year. In 2018, Lukashenka blocked a draft law on the prevention of domestic violence jointly developed by the law enforcement agencies and civil society representatives. He called attitudes against the corporal punishment of children “nonsense from the West” and insisted that “good” punishment of children could be useful to them. Threats of losing custody of children are often used to intimidate and harass political activists. Independent unions were prominent in the prodemocracy movement in the summer of 2020, striking to protest the fraudulent presidential election and police violence toward peaceful demonstrators. The state increasingly targeted and pressured workers to prevent them from going on strike. Union leaders and rank-and-file members were arrested, fined, https://gardeniaweddingcinema.com/european-women/belarusian-women/ dismissed from their posts, sent to psychiatric institutions, and forced into exile.